Until the 19th century, perfume was used only by the wealthy. The Industrial Revolution sparked less costly methods of production, and a burgeoning middle class gave perfume makers a vast new market. French perfume became a global commodity. Nevertheless, the perfume bottle remained relatively unchanged through the end of the 19th century. Perfume was sold in generically shaped bottles and then transferred to more elegant vessels by consumers. However, with the rise of department stores and the growing global market, perfume manufacturers began to compete for customers, using aesthetically pleasing labels and attractive boxes to sell their perfumes.